Contemporary Office Space Indoor

plants-in-the-office Contemporary Office Space Indoor

plants-in-the-office Contemporary Office Space Indoor

The modern office was designed keeping in mind the standards required to bag a LEED Gold certification. Sustainable materials and locally obtained wooden décor have been used extensively. An open-floor plan design of the office allows for greater interactivity and exchange of ideas among the employees. Use of bright colors like green and yellow bring in both the necessary warmth and brightness.Stylish indoor garden with the native plants of the region, a vegetable garden in the backyard, a full kitchen and a gorgeous dining pace encased in a sustainable shell complete this new-age office space. Beautiful little nooks that present the perfect hangouts, a vibrant gallery and meeting area, skylights that allow for ample natural ventilation and natural temperature-regulating vents ensure that the place is both energy conscious and functional.

Despite its innovative design, the Hayden Place still exudes an appeal that makes it perfect for an official business meeting with clients. Providing an inspirational and uplifting backdrop, coming in to work here each day seems surely a pleasant experience!

Hayden Place office space created for the Cunningham Group is truly a sparkling example of sustainable and green work areas that combine inimitable design with flowing ergonomics. Designed with a sense of vibrant freshness and located in Culver City, California, the office was designed by Cunningham Group themselves. With most modern offices quickly moving away from the rigid existing models and cubicle design, the one on display here truly takes creativity and ingenuity to a whole new green level!

plants-in-the-office Contemporary Office Space Indoor plants-in-the-office Contemporary Office Space Indoor plants-in-the-office Contemporary Office Space Indoor

Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

The result is a warm and welcoming home that seems to be largely clad in various hues of wood. While the walls have a more current feel with their all-white look, the décor seems to largely sport dark brown and chocolate shades that seem to go beautifully blend with the wooden flooring in the same shade. The standout character of the home is its largely traditional look that still seems intact while embracing a more present-day open design.

Unlike many of the homes that we see today, there is no excessive use of glass and the décor is kept sleek and simple and also seems to be largely limited to wood. A beautiful fireplace at the heart of the living room, a lovely garden area at the back that is visually connected with the rest of the home and bedrooms that seem more current compared to the more classic feel that remainder of the home exudes complete this smart renovation. It is often far harder to work with existing structures in an effort to renovate and revamp them into modern homes than to plan for a brand new one. That is largely thanks to the limitations that are already in place and architects and designers have to work within this framework to create a home that is both functional and fits the taste of the owners aesthetically.

Interior design studio Artistic Designs for Living had a similar challenge to take up when they were asked to give the traditional and outdated bungalow in Mill Valley in Marin County, California a more contemporary and spacious look.

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

fancy-dining-table-in-Mill-Valley Bungalow in California Gets Contemporary

Bungalow Leaves it Brighter and Better

Exposed-brick-and-timber-give-the-interior-a-cozy-and-timeless-appeal-682x1024 Bungalow Leaves it Brighter and Better

The most beautiful feature of the home is the lovely use of brick and wood creating a series of textural surfaces that offer both personality and visual contrast. Existing masonry walls were preserved and enhanced while the ceiling draped in wood makes a big impact. With the cozy living room, windows seats, a lovely fireplace and delightful nooks ensure that every moment spent here is cheerful and connected to nature outside.

It is the trio of kitchen, dining area and living space that make up the new social zone with white and shades of gray holding sway. Minimal wooden furniture and comfy couches put final touches on a lovely transformation.

There are times when little things make a big difference to the overall ambiance of the house. Nestled in a gorgeous neighborhood of Brunswick West, Australia, this classic Californian bungalow was in need of a modern makeover that put functionality ahead of form. Designed by Taylor Knights, the new, 50-square-meter extension and alteration completely changes the floor plan of the house even while giving the homeowners a brand new living area. The existing house was transformed into a series of bedrooms space and private areas while the new addition provides the living area, kitchen and dining room.

Exposed-brick-and-timber-give-the-interior-a-cozy-and-timeless-appeal-682x1024 Bungalow Leaves it Brighter and Better

Exposed-brick-and-timber-give-the-interior-a-cozy-and-timeless-appeal-682x1024 Bungalow Leaves it Brighter and Better

Exposed-brick-and-timber-give-the-interior-a-cozy-and-timeless-appeal-682x1024 Bungalow Leaves it Brighter and Better

Dua Lipa first realised

Dua Lipa

nn11480463-teaser-story-big-1024x682 Dua Lipa first realised
British Singer Dua Lipa at her childhood home in Pristina, Kosovo. Born in London

When people used to ask what I wanted to be I’d always say a singer, but I never thought it was a real job. I thought it was as far-fetched as cartoon characters on TV, she says. Born in London to Albanian parents who left Kosovo in the ’90s, Lipa can remember making up dance routines in the playground to Jamelia’s ‘Superstar’ and Ciara’s ‘1, 2 Step’. Her dream seemed even more unlikely after her family returned to Kosovo when she was 11, calling time on Saturday classes at Sylvia Young Theatre School, where Amy Winehouse and Rita Ora – herself an immigrant from Kosovo – also started out. “Music there was so different, Lipa says. It just didn’t compare to the pop stars I’d see on TV, like Britney Spears and Destiny’s Child.The resulting heartfelt song ‘Homesick’ appears on the 21-year-old’s self-titled debut album, which arrives two years after buzzy debut track ‘New Love’. Since that first step, she’s had three singles in the UK Top 15, been named Best New Artist at the VO5 NME Awards, collaborated with Sean Paul and Miguel, and sold out the O2 Shepherd’s Bush Empire in London. So far, Lipa’s rise looks pretty smooth – she hasn’t even had her first Twitter spat – but this doesn’t mean it happened by accident.

Dua Lipa first realised she was a legitimately massive pop star when she found herself sat in the studio with Coldplay frontman Chris Martin. “I had this realisation, ‘This is the guy you hear on the radio, this is
the guy you went to see at Glastonbury.’ And at that point I was like, ‘Oh my God. What’s happening to me? This is just crazy.’

Because Kosovo felt so constraining, a 15-year-old Lipa persuaded her parents she should return to London alone, so she could study full-time at Sylvia Young. “There was an older girl from Kosovo moving to London at the same time and my parents knew her parents, so they said I could live with her. Like a kind of guardian.” The two girls ended up sharing a flat in Kilburn, but the guardian thing never happened – Lipa had to go at it alone. She was super-busy with her boyfriend and stressed with her studies. So I’d have lots of friends over all the time and I’d always be on FaceTime with my parents. At 15, music was Lipa’s biggest focus, and she was already learning life skills most of us don’t think about until university. “The cooking and the cleaning… that was tough,” she says with a self-deprecating laugh. “I mean, the realisation that no one was going to clean up after me was tough! But stuff like that really made me grow up before my time. It helped me mature, I guess, and made me who I am today. I’m really grateful for it, but I do remember it being a struggle. My mum came to visit once, opened my wardrobe and said, ‘What are all these clothes?’ I was like, ‘Those are all the dirty clothes that I’ve never washed!

The hustle paid off and at 18 she signed a record deal. But that wasn’t the end goal. Since then, she’s stayed in firm control of how she’s portrayed, who she works with and how she manages her ascent to stardom. She’s scored big hits with Sean Paul (‘No Lie’) and EDM star Martin Garrix (‘Scared To Be Lonely’), but she’s rejected other features because they didn’t feel right. “I knew there was a possibility they could push me to a larger audience, but I think when features aren’t done correctly they don’t represent who you are as an artist and you get a bit lost.

nn11480463-teaser-story-big-1024x682 Dua Lipa first realised

Lipa co-wrote most of her album, but breakthrough banger ‘Be The One’ was given to her by songwriters Lucy Taylor and Nicholas James Gale. “As much as I loved the song, at first I wasn’t sure I wanted to record it because I hadn’t written it,” she recalls. “It was a pride thing, but it was also like, ‘I can’t take a song I haven’t written because then no one will believe I write any of my own stuff.’ But I just had to get over it. And now that song has helped me to get the stuff that I did write out there.”

NME suggests it’s sexist to presume female pop artists lack talent if they don’t write their songs. “That’s so true,” Lipa says. “You’re never going to get very far if you don’t have influence on your own music – look at Rihanna. I’m sure she single-handedly picks every one of her songs, then makes them her own. And I still think she tells her own story through those songs. You can tell they’re the songs she really feels deep down.”

As for the Chris Martin collaboration, it was a last-minute addition that at one point didn’t look like happening. “I get this email saying, ‘Why don’t you meet Chris at this studio in Malibu and play him your stuff?’ And I’m like, ‘Oh my God’ she begins. No time like the present, she took the trip to meet him. “He’s listening attentively and wants to know the meaning behind the songs,” she says.Then he’s like, ‘OK, why don’t we try something for your album?’ He sets up the mics and we’re just humming ideas, making up melodies and recording it all. It was already quite late, so he gave me what we’d recorded and said, ‘Have a listen back. If you think there’s something good there, we’ll come back to it.’ I just thought, ‘He’s sending me on my way now, we’re never gonna see each other again.’”

But Lipa listened back, picked out one of the melodies they’d written and arranged a second session. At first, it was just meant to be me [singing], but then I begged him to sing too. I was like, ‘You have to be on this song!’ And he agreed. It’s the most beautiful song on the album. I think it really brings everyone in for a little cry. The hard work doesn’t stop with a hit-packed, chart-ready debut album. She’s now preparing for a massive Glastonbury performance of her own and a whole summer of festivals. Everything revolves around building brand Lipa. It’s like when you hear a voice on the radio and think, ‘Well, that’s Ed Sheeran. I want people to hear my voice, or my name, and think, ‘That’s the girl who sings ‘Hotter Than Hell’. That’s the girl who sings ‘Be The One

Biography Justin Bieber Inspiring Story

Biography-of-Justin-Bieber-Inspiring-Story-To-Be-Successful-1024x555 Biography Justin Bieber Inspiring Story

Justin Bieber’s Songs

Bieber’s debut album, My World, hit stores in November 2009, selling more than 137,000 copies within a week. In 2010, Bieber released My World 2.0 (2010), which offered his growing fan base 10 new songs. Never Say Never was released in 2011, with a holiday album, Under the Mistletoe, coming out the same year. In 2012, the album Believe was released, which sold 374,000 albums in its first week and a year later, Journals, a downbeat album without a hit single. Bieber made a big comeback in 2015 with his album Purpose, which became his fifth million-selling record in the U.S. by the end of the year.

Some of Bieber’s hit songs include:



In January 2017, Puerto Rican singer-songwriter Luis Fonsi released the hit “Despacito” on YouTube; the video soon became the most-watched video of all time on YouTube. A few months later, after hearing the song in a nightclub in Colombia, Justin Bieber asked Fonsi to collaborate on a remix. Their song went on to hit the number one spot on the Hot 100; after 16 consecutive weeks in the top spot, it broke the all-time record as the longest-standing chart-topping song in August 2017.

When and Where Was He Born?

Justin Bieber was born on March 1, 1994, in the small town of Stratford, Ontario, Canada.

Justin Bieber is a Canadian singer and songwriter. Born in 1994 in Stratford, Ontario, Canada, to a single mother, Bieber took second place in a local talent competition at a young age. After his mother posted YouTube clips of her boy performing, Bieber went from an unknown, untrained singer to a budding superstar with a big-time record deal with Usher within two years. Bieber went on to become the first solo artist to have four singles enter the Top 40 before the release of a debut album. His 2009 album My World has gone platinum in several countries. He later experienced significant media exposure from offensive activity. Nonetheless, the singer made his comeback in 2015 with his first No. 1 song, “What Do You Mean?” His 2017 collaboration with Luis Fonsi, “Despacito,” broke the all-time record for most consecutive weeks at the number one spot on the Top 100.

Biography-of-Justin-Bieber-Inspiring-Story-To-Be-Successful-1024x555 Biography Justin Bieber Inspiring Story

Net Worth

According to Forbes magazine, Justin Bieber’s net worth is $83.5 million as of June 2017, thanks in large part to a successful live tour and his Calvin Klein endorsement deal. Celebrity Net Worth puts Bieber’s net worth at much more — $265 million — from his music sales, merchandise, product endorsements, touring and other business ventures.

Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez

Teen idol Justin Bieber broke the hearts of many of his young female fans in 2010 when he started dating television actress and singer Selena Gomez. It wasn’t easy for Gomez to be Bieber’s girlfriend, as she was accosted by some of his devoted followers. There were even death threats posted against her on Twitter after the pair was photographed kissing while on a 2011 vacation. The couple ended their relationship in November 2012.

The pair, however, have remained in touch on and off since their split. In November 2017, Bieber and Gomez were spotted together publicly several times, stoking rumors that they had gotten back together and were trying to work things out.

“One Time”

Bieber’s first single, “One Time,” went certified platinum in his native Canada shortly after its release in May 2009.


Bieber broke into the Billboard Top 10 in early 2010 with “Baby,” which also featured rapper Ludacris.

“All I Want for Christmas Is”

In 2011, Bieber released an album featuring his own take on such holiday classics as “All I Want For Christmas Is,” his duet with Mariah Carey.


Bieber had another hit single in April 2012 with “Boyfriend,” which appeared on his 2012 album Believe.

“Beauty and a Beat”

In October 2012, amid controversy over his offensive behavior, Bieber released another Top 10 hit with this party anthem featuring Nicki Minaj.

“Where Are Ü Now”

Bieber nailed a summer Top 10 hit with the Diplo and Skrillex collaboration “Where Are Ü Now” in 2015, helmed by R&B songwriter Poo Bear. In 2016, Bieber landed his first Grammy, winning for “Where Are Ü Now” in the category of Best Dance Recording.

“What Do You Mean?”

In October 2015, Bieber landed his first No. 1 single with “What Do You Mean?,” also produced with Poo Bear.


Justin Bieber has said he’s 5-foot-9-inches tall. However based on photographs of the star next to other celebrities, there has been speculation that he measures in at 5-foot-7-inches.

Justin Bieber’s Dad and Mom

Justin Bieber was raised by a single mom. His dad, Jeremy Bieber, left to start a family with another woman. According to some media reports, Justin and his father weren’t close growing up; his dad has been at times described as being a “deadbeat” who only resurfaced after Justin achieved YouTube fame. Jeremy reportedly considered becoming a rapper himself and has struggled with addiction problems. It was also reported that Justin had been partying with his dad just before his January 2014 arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs.

Despite their allegedly complicated relationship, Justin has maintained that he and his dad are close. In 2010, 16-year-old Justin told Seventeen magazine: “I have a great relationship with my dad. When I was younger, he taught me how to play some songs on the guitar, like ‘Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door’ by Bob Dylan.” Justin’s first tattoo, a seagull that he got in 2010, matches one his father has.

In February 2016, Justin told GQ magazine, “I’m a lot closer to my dad than I am to my mum.” In April, Justin attended his dad’s party to celebrate Jeremy’s engagement to girlfriend Chelsey Rebelow.

YouTube & Rise to Fame

Bieber always had an interest in music. His mother gave him a drum kit for his second birthday and, as he tells it, he was “basically banging on everything I could get my hands on.” But it was an obscure talent contest in his hometown, in which the 12-year-old Bieber finished second that put him on the road to superstardom. As a way to share his singing with family, Justin and his mom began posting clips of Bieber performing covers of Stevie Wonder, Michael Jackson and Ne-Yo on YouTube.

Within months, Justin was an Internet sensation, with a large following of fans and an eager manager arranging for the teenager to fly to Atlanta to consider a record deal. There, Bieber had a chance meeting with Usher, who eventually signed the young singer to a contract.

Calvin Klein Ad

In the spring of 2015, Justin Bieber was featured in a prominent Calvin Klein ad with Dutch model Lara Stone. The shots, which show a grown-up Bieber stripped down to his underwear, were a fan favorite.

A year later, Bieber was featured in another Calvin Klein ad campaign, this time with model and reality star Kendall Jenner.

‘Never Say Never’ Movie

In 2011, Bieber took to the big screen in the concert documentary Never Say Never. His fans crowded movie theaters to catch him in action on stage and get a glimpse of his life behind the scenes. The movie, which eventually earned more than $73 million at the box office, also had guest appearances by Kanye West, Miley Cyrusand Bieber’s musical mentor Usher.

Courting Controversy

While still only in his teens, Bieber survived his first public scandal. A woman filed suit against Bieber in 2011, claiming that he was the father of her child. But a DNA test proved that the young pop star was not the father and the woman dropped her lawsuit. Bieber sang about the scandal in the song “Maria.”

That was only the beginning of a string of scandals, bad behavior and unfavorable press for the young pop artist. In March 2013, Bieber’s neighbor accused the singer of spitting on him, in addition to making threatening comments. Two months later, denizens of Bieber’s neighborhood in Calabasas, California, complained that he was driving too fast in a residential area.

On April 15, 2013, Bieber visited a museum in Amsterdam that paid tribute to Anne Frank. Upon writing that the young Holocaust victim “would have been a Belieber,” he faced more backlash from the public. On July 9, 2013, his image was scrutinized once again after he was recorded urinating in a janitor’s bucket and yelling “F— Bill Clinton,” holding a photo of the former president. Although he later apologized, his previously squeaky clean image began to tarnish even more.

On January 14, 2014, Bieber’s home in California was searched after he was accused of egging a neighbor’s house. Nine days later, Bieber was arrested for suspicion of drag racing and driving under the influence. After a Breathalyzer test showed that Bieber wasn’t sober, he was taken into custody where he stayed until he posted bail, which was set at $2,500. The charges, however, were reduced to only resisting arrest.


Electric Guitar Storys

electric-guitar_infographic-1024x332 Electric Guitar Storys

The earliest electric guitars were made in the 1920s and 1930s, but these were very primitive prototypes of the modern solid-body electrical guitar. The very first electrified guitar was said to have been invented by Paul H. Tutmarc. Inspired by the inner workings of the telephone, which employed magnetics to create vocal vibrations, Tutmarc experimented on the Hawaiian guitar, building a magnetic pickup out of horseshoe magnets and wire coils that amplified the vibration of the instrument’s strings.

Around the same time, George Beauchamp and John Dopyera, two Los Angeles musicians, worked on creating even louder guitars. After experimenting with attaching amplifying horns to instruments, they, too, developed an electromagnetic pickup, this one comprised of two horseshoe magnets. Pleased with the effectiveness of the pickup, Beauchamp had a craftsman make a guitar designed with a wooden neck and body. Nicknamed the “frying pan” because of its shape, this became the first electric guitar. Beauchamp took the prototype to Adolph Rickenbacker. The two men formed a company and began manufacturing the first of the famous Rickenbacker line of electric guitars. Thus, Rickenbacker became the first manufacturer of electric guitars.

Developed in the early part of the twentieth century, the electric guitar has become one of the most important instruments in popular music. Today’s solid-body electric guitar derives from the acoustic guitar, an instrument first introduced in America as the Spanish-style guitar. Even though body designs of modern electric guitars often differ from their acoustic predecessors, all guitars are constructed with the same simple template. All guitars, acoustic or electric, are built with a bridge, body, and neck. The most significant difference is that acoustic guitars are hollow while electric guitars have a solid body.

For years, the acoustic guitar was limited to a supporting role in large musical ensembles because of its volume. Thus, the major motivation that drove the creation of the electric guitar was instrumentalists’ desire for greater volume. Predecessors of the modern electric guitar were amplified acoustic guitars crudely modified by inventors who attached wires, magnets, and other “pickup” attachments. (Pickups are electromagnetic devices that increase volume.) However, as technology started advancing in the 1930s, newer versions became more complex, and the electric guitar became a solo instrument, a development that helped expand musical styles.

The first “Spanish-style” electric guitar was built and sold by Lloyd Loar, another early experimenter. His design was the direct predecessor of the modern electric guitar, and it inspired Orville Gibson, another guitar pioneer, to create the electric guitar model that revolutionized the instrument: the ES-150. Slide guitarist Alvino Rey developed the prototype of the ES-150, which has been called the first modern electric guitar. The final version was built by Gibson employee Walter Fuller. Though the guitar was an immediate success, it had some flaws. The vibrations from its hollow body were picked up and amplified, which created feedback and distortion. This led Les Paul, a guitarist and inventor, to develop the solid body electric guitar in 1940.

Paul’s innovation, which was called “the Log” because of its solid body, involved mounting the strings and pickup on a solid block of pine to minimize body vibrations. The “Log” consisted of two basic magnetic pickups mounted on a 4 × 4 in (10.2 × 10.2 cm) piece of pine. To make it look more like a conventional guitar, Paul sawed an arch-top guitar in half and attached the pieces to his model. The solid body proved effective in eliminating the problems of the ES-150.

In 1946, Paul took his new guitar to Gibson, who was skeptical about the solid body. Leo Fender, however, understood the conception, and in 1949, he started selling the “Esquire,” which became the first successful solid-body guitar. The guitar was later renamed the “Telecaster,” one of the most famous guitar brand names. The Telecaster became extremely popular with country, blues, and rock and roll musicians. The Telecaster prompted Gibson to build his own solid-body model, which was named the “Les Paul.”

In 1956, Rickenbacker introduced the student model Combo 400 guitar, with its so-called “butterfly-style” body. The guitar’s unique construction featured a neck that extended from the patent head to the base of the body (known today as neck-through-body construction) and with the sides of the guitar body bolted or glued into place.

By the 1960s, the electric guitar was an established musical instrument. Innovations in design continued through the decade. In 1961, Gibson introduced “Humbucking” pickups into the Les Paul guitar that were designed to eliminate unwanted hum from the magnetic coils. (Humbucking pickups used two coils wrapped out of phase. This eliminated the common mode hum present in previous designs.) That same year, McCarty introduced the ES-335, a semi-hollow body guitar designed to incorporate the best of both the hollow body and solid body designs. Both Gibson and Fender had introduced futuristic looking designs. The Gibson SG and the Fender Stratocaster became familiar to audiences because they were frequently used by rock guitarists in the 1960s.

electric-guitar_infographic-1024x332 Electric Guitar Storys

James Marshall Hendrix was born November 27, 1942 in Seattle. Hendrix taught himself to play guitar by listening to blues recordings; left-handed, he used a restrung right-handed guitar. Hendrix became known in the 1960s for playing the guitar behind his back, with his teeth, and setting it on fire. At times his stage pyromania overshadowed his musical pyrotechnics, but he is recognized as perhaps the most influential rock guitarist in history.

Hendrix began as a studio musician in the early 1960s, forming a band in 1965. The following year he created a new band, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, and started a new sound—acid rock—that employed intentional feed-back and other deliberate distortions. His stage antics gained him notoriety at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival, and the band had a Top 40 hit with their version of Bob Dylan’s “All Along the Watchtower” in 1968. That year Hendrix directed his efforts to studio recordings, but appeared with his new group—Band of Gypsies—in 1969 at Woodstock, where he gave a memorable performance of “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

Hendrix was named pop musician of the year by Melody Maker, 1967 and 1968; voted Billboard artist of the year, 1968; named performer of the year and honored for rock album of the year by Rolling Stone,1968; presented with the key to Seattle, 1968; inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, 1992; and received the Grammy Award for lifetime achievement, 1993. Hendrix died September 18, 1970 from asphyxiation resulting from a drug overdose.

Raw materials that go into the construction of the electric guitar include well-seasoned hardwoods such as maple, walnut, ash, alder, and mahogany for the solid body. The denser the wood, the better sustain an instrument will have (sustain refers to how long a note can be held). Wood density can also have an effect on the tone. Some bodies are also constructed with plexiglass. Wood is also used in the construction of the neck, including maple, rosewood, and ebony. Other raw materials include glue to hold the pieces together, chrome for the hardware, and a nitrocellulose lacquer for finishing the body.


The solid-body electrical guitar gets its volume from the magnetic pickup installed within its body. This pickup responds to the vibration of strings, transforming the energy into electrical impulses that are amplified by a loudspeaker system called an amplifier. For the best sound, the pickup needs to be stable and unaffected by vibrations from the body. Early electric guitar pioneers discovered that a pickup connected to a hollow-body acoustic guitar resulted in distortions and feedback. The need for stability is what led to the development of the solid body, the one feature that most characterizes the electric guitar. The solid body increases stability, and early electric guitar makers discovered, through experimentation, that guitar bodies made of high-density hardwood worked best.

In the late 1930s and 1940s, guitarists and inventors like Les Paul and Leo Fender developed the early designs of the solid-body electric guitar. Later, manufacturers moved away from traditional shapes and colors and came up with their own designs, many of which were quite fancy. More advanced models included the Fender Stratocaster and the Gibson Flying V.

The major components of the electric guitar include the bridge, the body and the neck. Secondary components include the fingerboard, strings, nut and tuning heads. A guitar manufacturing facility is, to a large extent, a woodworking facility, as wood selection and body design are large parts of the electric guitar construction process.

  1. Wood is selected, inspected, and processed to be made into bodies, necks and fingerboards. Sometimes it must be cured first in a conventional or vacuum kiln to maximize its stability. Curing can take as long as a week, and it relieves stress and wetness. The wood that will be made into a body is loaded onto a scissors lift and transferred to a conveyor where it is planed on both sides. It then moves down to the cut-off saw worker, who cuts the wood to size. From there, the wood is sent to a machine called a KOMO, a computer-controlled router that drills weight relief holes to make the wood lighter. The machine also cuts a channel in the wood where wire will eventually be placed.
  2. The wood then goes back into the rough mill, where it will have a maple top and mahogany back glued on in a glue mill under 900 lb (408 kg) of pressure. It is then placed on a glue wheel to dry for four hours. Up to this point, the wood is a square block. When dry, it is ready to be shaped. It is sent back to the KOMO, which is programmed to cut the periphery into the desired shape. The KOMO also routs the back electronic pockets.
  3. The body then goes to the body line for its final shaping. First, a worker sands the body by hand with sandpaper, then it undergoes a process called “rabbeting.” Rabbeting involves first making a machine cut that will accommodate the binding that the body needs. The worker maneuvers the body while the machine makes the cut. The body then moves down the line to the binding station. The worker takes the binding material, drenches it in glue by pulling it through a glue box, then wraps it around the rabbet cut made in the body. The worker then ties the body completely with rope to hold the glued binding material in place. Then the body is hung overnight to dry.
  4. The next morning, the worker removes the rope, and the body moves to the next station, where it will be shaped by sanding into its finished contour. Using a rim sander, a worker sands off the excess glue and ensures that the binding and the wood are flush. The body then goes to the slack belt machine for smoothing. The worker, by hand, places it under a slack belt and pushes the body under the belt with varying pressure until all carved marks are smoothed out.
  5. As the body of the guitar is built on the body line, the neck of the guitar is built on the neck line, where the neck is shaped and sanded by hand and the fingerboard and head veneer are applied.
  6. Fingerboards are made of rosewood and ebony and are stabilized in kilns, shaped, and slotted for frets. In shaping, the fingerboard first gets molded on a molder with a 12-in (30.5 cm) radius. From there, it moves into the rough board area, where location pin holes are drilled. Then it goes to the fret saw machine, where the fret slots are cut by a quick saw machine. A router then creates the inlay pockets on the fingerboard, and the inlays are added. The router is a powermatic tool that suctions the fingerboard down on a table and routs all of the pockets. The inlays themselves are placed in by hand at the inlay station. A worker places epoxy into the pockets, puts in the inlays, then places more epoxy on top of them. This eliminates any spaces. The fingerboard is then left to dry.
  7. When dry, the fingerboard moves on to a surface grinder that cleans the dried epoxy off of the top. Now the frets are ready to be placed. A worker takes the fingerboard and puts glue into the fret slots and then, by hand, places the fret wire. Using a pneumatic snip, the worker first places the wire then cuts off the excess. From there, the fingerboard is put into a hydraulic press that presses the frets completely in place. The worker then hand-sands the frets to make them smooth. The fingerboard is then slotted to accommodate binding, then left to dry. When the frets are dry, the fingerboard is joined to the neck.
  8. In the meantime, the neck has been built. This begins when the ten-quarter mahogany neck blanks are quarter-sawn for increased strength and straightness. Neck pattern templates are penciled, and then the neck blank is cut into the template shape with a bandsaw. The neck blank is then put on a rotary profile lathe. The lathe gives the neck its basic shape.
  9. A worker then joins the fingerboard to the neck by tapping in the location pins on the fingerboard, applying the glue, putting the fingerboard and the neck together, placing the connected pieces into a glue press, and then allowing it to dry. The head-stock veneer is also glued onto the neck blank. The neck is then sent down the line to be shaped and finished by machine rolling and hand sanding. Now the neck is ready to be fitted to the body.In attaching the neck to the body, several methods are used by different manufacturers. Some electric guitar necks are glued into place while others are bolted on. Many players prefer the glued-in neck, as they believe it gives a better joint that provides more sustain of notes. At Gibson, the necks on a Les Paul are always glued on.
  10. On the body, the location of neck placement is then traced. A cavity is cut where the neck will be placed. The worker places the neck in the neck slot to see if the fingerboard, neck, and body are all flush. Neck fitting is all done by hand, with a worker using a chisel, a clamp, and glue. The neck is then placed in the joint until a seamless fit is made. The fit is glued, clamped, and left to dry for an hour. When dry, the worker sands off the excess glue. The pickup cavities and bridge holes are added by a computer-controlled router.
  11. The guitar is now ready to for color preparation and finishing. Before applying the finish, workers hand sand the guitar to smooth any sharp corners. Then a wood filler and stain is applied to color the wood and even out the grain pattern.
  12. Before the body is sprayed with a finish, the body and neck are sealed to ensure that paint will not be absorbed into the wood. When the guitar dries, the finish is applied by using automated electrostatic methods that improve the consistency of the finish. Afterward, the guitar is sent to the scrapers, who remove any overspray with metal tools.
  13. After the guitar has dried and has been sanded, it goes into the buffing department. Buffing is a three-step process. First the guitar is buffed on a wheel. A jeweler’s rouge compound is used to remove any rough spots in the finish. Two more buffings are then done to achieve a brilliant gloss.
  14. The guitar now awaits final assemblage, where all of its hardware and electronics are installed. In general, at most guitar manufacturing factories, the final assembly of an electric guitar involve the pickguard placement, vibrato installation, setting the neck, tuner installation, installing strap bottoms, fret dress, nut, bridge and vibrato set up, string tree placement, and pick-up height.
  15. Next, the hardware and electronics are assembled and placed onto the body and bridge. Hardware placed onto the body include the pickguard, pickguard shield, pickup compression spring, pickup cover, pickup core assembly, lever knob, pickup selector switch, volume knob, tone knob, volume and tone potentiometers, ceramic capacitor, and output plug assembly. Hardware placed on the bridge include base plate, vibrato block, compression springs, bridge bar, set screws, bridge cover, rear cover plate, tension spring, tremelo tension spring holder, and lever assembly.
  16. Builders install pickups, pots, tuning keys, jackplates and toggle switches. The adjusters notch the tailpiece and nut, string the guitar, check neck pitch and intonation, and adjust the bridge height. The cleaners remove smudges and dirt, install back plates, pickguards, truss rod covers and other hardware and then polish the chrome, nickel or gold hardware.
  17. The guitar undergoes a final buff and polish and a final inspection.

Quality Control

During each stage of the process, the product is inspected. Even the smallest flaw in design such as a scratch or excess dried glue could send the guitar back down the line, or might even cause inspectors to scrap it. During final assembly, when hardware and wiring is installed, each component is tested separately to verify that it is working properly.

The Future

It is generally considered that the great part of the evolution of the electric guitar took place in between the late 1920s and the early 1960s, a period that saw the creation of the major innovations. However, guitar manufactures and inventors are still exploring ways to modify the instrument. These changes would include modification in design, materials, in pickups, or in finishes. Some guitar makers are looking to bodies made of plastic or graphite. Others are exploring designs that include hollow or semi-hollow bodies. For some time now, inventors have been trying to apply piezo to guitar pickup, or amplification. Piezo is a material with piezoelectric properties. If applied correctly to a musical instrument, it senses vibrations or changes in pressure. For a guitar, it could be applied in a contact microphone, or it could be placed on the guitar itself, where it would sense guitar vibration. Ultimately, it could enhance the sound of a guitar.

In the design area, a company has developed a mass 3D solid and surface modeling software that has attracted the attention of the Gibson, Warmoth, Suhr, and Tom Anderson Guitarworks guitar companies. The software would free designers from the limitations of two-dimensional planning and allow them to create complete three-dimensional designs before the manufacturing process began. In this way, they could be more experimental with designs. Potentially, the software would allow designers to create new designs in 3D without having to build prototypes or models. Designs could then be sent to a computerized woodworking station for a limited production run.

Smartphone Controlled Your Light Switch

asas-300x204 Smartphone Controlled Your Light Switch


We’ve created a way for you to connect and configure Bluetooth control of a lamp or any AC-powered device in your home using an Arduino as the brain. Let’s get started!

Blinking an LED is the “Hello, World” of hardware — an easy test to ensure that your Arduino is set up correctly. Grab your Arduino board, a breadboard, an LED, a 220Ω resistor, and some jumper wires, and follow Massimo Banzi’s tutorial. The example code will set the Arduino’s pin 13 as HIGH for 1 second (switching the LED on) and then LOW for 1 second (off), and so on.

2. Add a pushbutton switch

Now connect the little tactile pushbutton and a 10kΩ resistor as shown in Figure A.

Download this project’s Arduino code. In the Arduino IDE, open the Library Manager and type BLEPeripheral into the search window, then select the library BLEPeripheral.h and click Install.

Next open the sketch ble-smart-switch.ino in the Arduino IDE, and upload it to your Arduino. Now your LED should turn on when you push the button, and off when you push the button again.

3. Add the Bluetooth module

Now that you have a working pushbutton light switch, let’s add Bluetooth LE. The Bluetooth board we’re using is the Adafruit Bluefruit LE board based around the Nordic Semiconductor nRF8001 chipset. Wire the board to the Arduino as shown in Figure B, using pin 2 for RDY and pins 9 and 10 for RST and REQ, respectively.


4. Program your smart switch

Open the Arduino sketch ble-light-with-powertail.ino and read along with the comments to see how your Smart Light Switch code will establish the service:

» Create a peripheral instance using the BLEPeripheral library. » Create a lightswitch service with UUID of 0×FF10. » Create the Switch and State characteristics and descriptors.

BLEPeripheral blePeripheral = BLEPeripheral (BLE_REQ, BLE_RDY, BLE_RST); BLEService lightswitch = BLEService("FF10"); BLECharCharacteristic switchCharacteristic = BLECharCharacteristic("FF11", BLERead | BLEWrite); BLEDescriptor switchDescriptor = BLEDescrip tor("2901", "Switch"); BLECharCharacteristic stateCharacteristic = BLECharCharacteristic("FF12", BLENotify); BLEDescriptor stateDescriptor = BLEDescrip tor("2901", "State");

And then configure it: » Set the Local Name (for generic Bluetooth access) and Device Name (for broadcast in the peripheral’s advertising packet). » Add your service characteristics and descriptors as Attributes of your peripherals instance. » Advertise the Bluetooth LE service, and poll for Bluetooth LE messages. » Set both the switch and state to be on if the button is pushed, off if it’s released.

pinMode(LED_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(BUTTON_PIN, INPUT); blePeripheral.setLocalName("Light Switch"); blePeripheral.setDeviceName("Smart Light Switch"); blePeripheral.setAdvertisedServiceUuid(lightswitch.uuid()); blePeripheral.addAttribute(lightswitch); blePeripheral.addAttribute(switchCharacteristic); blePeripheral.addAttribute(switchDescrip tor); blePeripheral.addAttribute(stateCharacteristic); blePeripheral.addAttribute(stateDescriptor); blePeripheral.begin();

Save and upload the sketch to the board. Now you can turn the LED on and off as normal using the button, and if you open the Serial Console you’ll see the string Smart Light Switch appear, with further messages every time you push the button to turn the LED on or off.

In addition, now you can “throw” the switch using Bluetooth LE, because we’ve assigned an event handler to be called when a write command is made on the peripheral:

switchCharacteristic.setEventHandler(BLEWritten, switchCharacteristicWritten);

And at the bottom of the sketch, after the loop( ) function, we’ve added the handler function itself. Now you can control the LED via Bluetooth LE!

5. Test your Bluetooth service

All you need now is a generic Bluetooth LE explorer app so you can examine and trigger your service. Go to your preferred app store and install LightBlue (iOS) or nRF Master Control Panel (Android) on your smartphone or tablet. The two apps present the same information in slightly different ways.

Opening either app will start it scanning for Bluetooth LE devices. You can choose a peripheral from a list of nearby devices and explore information about that connected peripheral, its services, and characteristics.

Now take a look at your Smart Light Switch in LightBlue (Figure C). Tapping through from the Smart Light Switch in the peripherals list, you can see the advertisement data for the service showing our two characteristics: Switch, which is Read/Write, and State, which is Notify. You can register the LightBlue app for notifications when the LED state changes by tapping on “Listen for notifications” in the State characteristic screen.

The Switch characteristic screen shows the current value of this characteristic, which should be 0x00, meaning the LED is off. Tap on “Write new value” to open the editor. Enter 01 and hit Done; the LED should turn on and the screen should show the new value as 0x01. If you registered for notifications, you should also see a drop-down to tell you the value has changed (Figure D).

If you have the Serial Console open you should also see the message Characteristic event: light on printed in the console. Finally, if you push the tactile button, you should see a further notification in LightBlue that the LED state has changed back to 0x00.

That’s it — you’ve created a working smart light switch!F

6. Connect a real light bulb

Now connect your smart switch to an actual lamp. The PowerSwitch Tail (Figure E) simplifies our lives by hiding all that nasty AC electricity and letting us use a relay and our Arduino board to switch real mains-powered devices on and off. Nice.

Connect 3 wires to the PowerSwitch Tail’s screw terminals: the left terminal (labeled +in) is for +5V; the middle (labeled -in) is the signal wire; and the right is Ground. Then wire up the Arduino, switch, and PowerSwitch Tail as shown in Figure F.

Plug the PowerSwitch Tail into the wall, and then plug a mains-powered lamp or other electrical device (maximum draw 15A at 120V) into the PowerSwitch Tail socket.

The PowerSwitch Tail can be wired either as “normally open” or “normally closed.” From a safety perspective, it makes sense to use the normally open configuration here: Power will only flow while the signal wire from the Arduino is pulled LOW, otherwise the lamp remains “off.”

Since pulling the signal wire LOW rather than HIGH is what triggers the relay, we have to flip the logic for the LED_PIN. Go back into the code and you’ll see that everywhere there was a

digitalWrite(LED_PIN, HIGH);

we have changed it to

digitalWrite(LED_PIN, LOW);

and vice versa.

Now, instead of controlling an LED, you’re controlling a real lamp with your phone! Congrats!

This project is adapted from the book Make: Bluetooth by Alasdair Allan, Don Coleman, and Sandeep Mistry.

10 Methods Ways To Smell Amazing

It’s a fact that you don’t wash your heavy coats as much as you wash your body. Make sure to spray leather jackets and any coats that will absorb your favorite scent. This will save you money, instead of respraying yourself or cotton items – you can have your favorite clothing smell like your perfume.

 Avoid Pungent Foods

In order to smell fresh all day, keep your insides fresh. Pungent foods like garlic, onions, curry, and red meat will seep out into your pores. Try to eat more fruits and nuts to keep your scent fresh, as pungent foods will come out in sweat. Even if you are doing all the previous 9 things mentioned above, poor eating habits will sabotage your scent. Make sure to eat fresh to smell fresh!

Drop a Perfume Oil in Shampoo

Perfume oil is key to the holistic approach of making your scent last. Your favorite scent is usually sold as an oil either by the beauty brand, or can be found at your favorite beauty supply. You can add the oil to your lotion, or to truly kick it up a notch – add it to your shampoo! You will definitely keep the scent in your hair, and will add to your smell experience.

Keep a Travel Size with You

If you perfume does start to fade, keep a travel size with you to spritz. Most companies will make travel sizes or roller balls that are affordable and will come in handy. I recommend sticking on in your bag for events or make up bag for daily use, just to stay fresh. This investment will pay off when you are in a pinch for a date or meeting and would like to freshen up without a full shower!

Pick a Body Wash with Similar Ingredients

Making fragrance last all day is all about layering. So once you have gotten to know your favorite perfume, invest some time into finding a body wash with similar ingredients. This will create a great foundation for your perfume to last all day, and will create a harmonious relationship between your products.

664xauto-pakai-parfum-juga-ada-aturannya-lho-140703w1 10 Methods Ways To Smell Amazing

Layer Oil Under Perfume

Oil under perfume is a huge beauty hack. Perfume usually fades on dry skin because there is nothing to latch onto, but putting a little oil can totally change your perfume longevity. Dab a little bit of your favorite oil under areas you are going to spray, and smell yourself all day! I personally recommend coconut oil because of its benefits and creamy smell, but you can use Vitamin E or any oil of your liking.

Spray Efficiently
Another key to extending the life of your scent is to spray efficiently. Spray areas where your chakras are to encourage the smell. Perfume is activated by heat, so spray areas where there is a pulse (basically, where you can feel a heartbeat) – including the bottom of the neck, wrist, inner elbows, and behind the knees. Keep the perfume in those spots to encourage diffusion of your scent. If you are looking for a lighter scent, spray the air and walk into it.

664xauto-pakai-parfum-juga-ada-aturannya-lho-140703w1 10 Methods Ways To Smell Amazing

 Moisturize with a Similar Scent

This idea goes off the last slide. Take your body wash and perfume a step above and add a scented lotion into the mix. This way you are truly ensuring your skin is absorbing the scent of your choice, and will last all day. Certain luxury companies will sell a bundle of these items, but it is smarter to search for your own body wash and lotion by finding matches through keynote ingredients.

Start With Picking Your Scent

This might be the hardest part. There are multiple scents to choose from, built of different herbs, flowers, and spices. I recommend going to your local department store with an extended beauty department. Pick up samples, then pick your favorite scent. Take home at least 3 samples and ask your loved ones and trusted friends their opinions before settling on a scent.

Know Your Scent

Once you have chosen your favorite perfume, make sure to get to know the perfume. Check to make sure if you are buying a “parfum” or “toillette” – because there is a big difference. Parfum is much more concentrated and will last longer, while a toillette is meant to be used as a skin refresher. Beyond knowing the type of perfume you are buying, find the key notes. Find what it is about the perfume you love, and stick with it – whether it be rose, vanilla, sandalwood, or whatever else key note you are attracted to.

Why should a fax machine?

If I asked you to send me a fax today, you’d probably message back in disbelief—a what the hell message transmitted near-instantaneously via text, email, Instagram story, disappearing Snapchat, or Skype call. A fax? 1989 called, they want their communication method back.

28108832021_13765ce10c_z Why should a fax machine?

But the fax machine isn’t dead yet. Usage certainly has fallen from its peak in fax-friendly 1997, when 3.6 million machines were sold in the United States. But technology historian Jonathan Coopersmith says it’s still too soon to count the fax machine out entirely. In fact, a fax is probably being sent somewhere, for some reason, right now.

Coopersmith is the author of the book Faxed: The Rise and Fall of the Fax Machine and technology historian at Texas A&M University. On a Monday morning in fax-phobic 2018, he called PopSci from a busy airport (“Isn’t modern technology wonderful that we’re able to do these things?” he said as he ordered tea in one state, and I listened in another) to discuss his favorite machine. He says the facsimile machine, as it was originally known, has metal roots stretching back to the 1840s. And, he believes due to its continued use among doctors, lawyers, and governments, who need valid signatures and safe information transfer, it will persist, in one form or another, for years to come.

The story starts with Alexander Bain, a mid-19th century Scottish inventor who developed an experimental machine that could transmit a scanned message line by line. For more than 130 years, various inventors, including Thomas Edison, tinkered with their own facsimile machine designs. “There’s a lot of failure, which is normal with technologies,” Coopersmith says of that first century of research and development. “There [were] a lot of people who say, ‘We can do this better. We’ll try again.’”

By the early 1900s, you could get a high-quality fax—on par with the kind of fax you’d receive today—but it cost a lot of money. “In many cases, you’re talking one or two orders of magnitude,” Coopersmith said of the cost. “For most businesses, that’s hard to justify.” For others, though, it made good sense. The Associated Press, for example, launched its Wirephoto network in 1935, which transmitted images through some 10,000 miles of leased telephone wires.

Then as now, the fax machine was based on a simple light/dark binary. To transmit a document, the machine scans a page, line by line, and transmits one set of electric pulses for the black parts (like text) and another for the white parts (like the spaces between letters, words, and paragraphs). The electric pulses are move through a telephone wire. On the other end of the transmission, a the receiving fax machine spits out black ink as directed, leaving the rest blank. It takes a few minutes, but early developers were convinced the hybrid analog-digital device showed promise.

28108832021_13765ce10c_z Why should a fax machine?

Their bet finally paid off in the 1980s. “When that price went down, more people began to use [fax],” Coopersmith says. The machines quickly became ubiquitous in the workplace. It was an exciting time. Or at least it appeared to be in the films of that era, many of which prominently feature a fax machine. (In 1989, Back to the Future 2laid out a vision for the future in which everyone had a fax machine in every room of their house, for example.) But it also presented a new problem, according to Coopersmith. “One of the issues raised by the legal community [was], is a fax signature legally valid?” It was this question—and its ultimate resolution—that would determine the fate of the fax, at least for now.

Drone For Accessible Research

Remote-controlled robots make data more accessible and are quickly becoming a desired tool in scientific research

ain Kerr was having a bad day. He and his research team had been cruising the Gulf of Mexico in a motorboat all morning chasing sperm whales, hoping to get a tissue sample to take back to their lab. But the behemoths were being frustratingly elusive.

pexels-photo-drone-1512930874 Drone For Accessible Research

At one point, Kerr was balancing on the bow of the boat, poised to shoot a modified crossbow that’d pop out a pencil eraser-sized chunk of blubber from the whale’s side. But just as he got close enough to shoot, the whale dove—for the fifth time that day. Sperm whales dive for 45 minutes to an hour, so when they’re gone, they’re gone. After 9 hours on the boat, which costs around $2,000 a day to rent, and no data to show for it, Kerr worried he was piddling away funding and donor money. “It felt like I was standing in a cold shower ripping up one hundred dollar bills,” says Kerr, a biologist who runs the nonprofit research organization Ocean Alliance.

That’s when two things hit him: a billowing mass of whale mucus, and an epiphany.

“I was sitting there fuming, and this cloud of snot enveloped me,” Kerr says. The whale snot “was stinky and horrible”, he says, “but as a biologist, anything that’s stinky and horrible is probably productive. I wondered if we could collect and study snot.”

His stinky, horrible hunch was right. Whale snot, it turns out, is packed with DNA, viruses, hormones, and microbes—all incredibly useful things to a variety of scientists. With DNA, geneticists could tell if an animal is native to the area or just passing through, epidemiologists could track the spread of infectious diseases, and biologists could analyze hormones to see if an animal is stressed to the point of infertility.

The only hurdle was figuring out how to get a bucket full of whale snot. But Kerr had an idea: As a hobby, he builds and flies remote control aircraft. Could a similar technology scoop up whale boogies middair?

So goes the origin story of SnotBot: a hexacopter drone covered in petri dishes that collects snot for science. Over the next few years, Kerr’s group, Ocean Alliance developed the bot with help from students at Olin College of Engineering in Massachusetts, with the idea that it could make whale science easier for the researchers and less invasive for the whales.

Typically, marine biologists employ the same techniques that failed Kerr: A motorboat equipped with long sticks and modified crossbows to collect whale biopsies. But Kerr hopes these flying research robots will soon change that. They’re part of a larger trend going on in the field in which scientists are employing drones to capture data that previously proved difficult to gather.

Drones are clearly having their moment of fame. Farmers are using temperature-sensing drones to monitor crops. Meteorologists and climate scientists are sending drones to track storms and hurricanes, and fast-food chains are even experimenting with ones that deliver pizza. But the technology has also proved useful for studying elusive animals in remote locations, whether that’s orangutans in the trees of Indonesia or whales in the middle of the ocean.

And they might be doing more than accessing hard-to-reach places. “Tech like SnotBot are a catalyst for the democratization of science,” says Kerr. Renting research vessels for a remote location can cost nearly $20,000 for an entire trip. Drones can often eliminate the need for such a ship altogether. A complete SnotBot package, including cameras, runs about $4,500 — and can be used over and over.

More whale stories

  • pexels-photo-drone-1512930874 Drone For Accessible Research

    A new study on whales suggests Darwin didn’t quite get it right

  • pexels-photo-drone-1512930874 Drone For Accessible Research

    Look to large bodies to understand long life spans

Before the robot can take to the skies as a standard research tool, it needs to prove its worth. It’s still unclear whether whale mucus can provide consistent measurements of hormones and DNA that are needed to study the monstrous animal.

Whale blow is a diffuse matrix, and it’s heavily contaminated with seawater,” says Liz Burgess, a marine biologist at the New England Aquarium in Boston. That’s fine for simply detecting which molecules are present in a snot cloud, but consistently getting a precise concentration of a stress hormone? Forget it. “It’s definitely not that easy.”

Burgess studies whale blow too, but grabs it the old fashioned way: with a 30 foot pole. She says using drones and traditional methods together might eventually be an ideal situation.

Ocean Alliance is developing other drones besides SnotBot, like FLIRBot, which can detect infrared light. Researchers could measure whales’ body temperatures just by looking down their blowholes. They also have EarBot in the works; it lands on the water, powers off, and listens for whale calls.

pexels-photo-drone-1512930874 Drone For Accessible Research

Ocean Alliance has other drones it plans to deploy to study whales and other marine life. Earbot, pictured above, can land and float on the water as it listens for and records whale calls.

Christian Miller

There’s no doubt drones have a place in science. Even the federal government is getting in on the act. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) collaborates with a drone project that passively listens for whales. The bot, called Saildrone, monitors several whale populations—including the North Pacific right whale, a species with only 30 living individuals left.

“It’s really important to monitor these animals in any way we can,” says Jessica Crance, a biologist at NOAA’s Alaska Fisheries Science Center and lead acoustics researcher for Saildrone. Passive acoustics, Crance says, seems to be the best way to do that.

Saildrone is 23 feet long and 15 feet high. It’s been deployed in the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Bering Sea where North Pacific right whales live. The drone is motorless and relies on a combination of battery and solar power to turn its sails and navigate. Researchers simply input coordinates and the drone will get there.

These bots are especially helpful for species like the North Pacific right whale, which are hard to spot because they seldom come to the surface. Saildrones can silently sit on the waves, listen for the whales to start talking, and then track them. And because they can stay at sea for many months, Crance hopes to use them to plot migration routes. That could be crucial data for species conservation; if researchers find that a swath of waters in the whales’ migration route has been uncharacteristically warm, for example, or has less food available, they might be able to pinpoint why so much of the population has died off.

But this project, too, still has hurdles to clear. Researchers are still working on making the sound recordings clear enough to identify distinct species vocalizing beneath the waves.

“The dream would be to have these recordings be clean enough to monitor for any species in the Bering Sea,” Crance says. “If we get there, we could use this as a real-time tool—if we heard a right whale vocalizing, we could alert and divert any vessels nearby.” She adds that the tech is being used to study other animals besides whales, too, like fur seals and various fish species; using multiple Saildrones and technology akin to sonar, researchers can triangulate the positions of these animals as they migrate and shift habitats.

Drone tech isn’t always a magic wand for making research affordable and easy, however. Megan Ferguson, a marine ecologist for NOAA, looked into using ScanEagle, an aircraft-like drone that’s been used by the military, as a replacement for manned aircraft to count whale populations from the skies. Her 2015 study found that the two methods estimated the same number of whales, but using ScanEagle required far more labor and resources.